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Title: Regulatory T cells selectively express toll-like receptors and are activated by lipopolysaccharide
Author: Caramalho, I.
Lopes-Carvalho, T.
Ostler, D.
Zelenay, S.
Haury, M
Demengeot, J
Keywords: Inflammation
Innate immunity
Issue Date: 17-Feb-2003
Publisher: Rockfeller University Press
Citation: Caramalho I, Lopes-Carvalho T, Ostler D, Zelenay S, Haury M, Demengeot J. (2003). “Regulatory T cells selectively express toll-like receptors and are activated by lipopolysaccharide”. Journal of Experimental Medicine. 197 (4): 403-411
Abstract: Regulatory CD4 T cells (Treg) control inflammatory reactions to commensal bacteria and opportunist pathogens. Activation of Treg functions during these processes might be mediated by host-derived proinflammatory molecules or directly by bacterial products. We tested the hypothesis that engagement of germline-encoded receptors expressed by Treg participate in the triggering of their function. We report that the subset of CD4 cells known to exert regulatory functions in vivo (CD45RB(low) CD25(+)) selectively express Toll-like receptors (TLR)-4, -5, -7, and -8. Exposure of CD4(+) CD25(+) cells to the TLR-4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces up-regulation of several activation markers and enhances their survival/proliferation. This proliferative response does not require antigen-presenting cells and is augmented by T cell receptor triggering and interleukin 2 stimulation. Most importantly, LPS treatment increases CD4(+) CD25(+) cell suppressor efficiency by 10-fold and reveals suppressive activity in the CD4(+) CD45RB(low) CD25(-) subset that when tested ex-vivo, scores negative. Moreover, LPS-activated Treg efficiently control naive CD4 T cell-dependent wasting disease. These findings provide the first evidence that Treg respond directly to proinflammatory bacterial products, a mechanism that likely contributes to the control of inflammatory responses
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