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Title: Signature of a Pre-Human Population Decline in the Critically Endangered Reunion Island Endemic Forest Bird Coracina newtoni
Author: Salmona, Jordi
Salamolard, Marc
Fouillot, Damien
Ghestemme, Thomas
Larose, Jerry
Centon, Jean-François
Sousa, Vitor
Dawson, Deborah A.
Thebaud, Christophe
Chikhi, Lounès
Keywords: Animals
Bayes Theorem
Endangered Species
Issue Date: 20-Aug-2012
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Citation: Salmona J, Salamolard M, Fouillot D, Ghestemme T, Larose J, et al. (2012) Signature of a Pre-Human Population Decline in the Critically Endangered Reunion Island Endemic Forest Bird Coracina newtoni . PLoS ONE 7(8): e43524. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0043524
Abstract: The exceptional biodiversity of Reunion Island is threatened by anthropogenic landscape changes that took place during the 350 years of human colonization. During this period the human population size increased dramatically from 250 to 800,000. The arrival of humans together with the development of agriculture, invasive species such as rats and cats, and deforestation has lead to the extinction of more than half of the original vertebrate species of the island. For the remaining species, significant work is being carried out to identify threats and conservation status, but little genetic work has been carried on some of the most endangered species. In the last decade theoretical studies have shown the ability of neutral genetic markers to infer the demographic history of endangered species and identify and date past population size changes (expansions or bottlenecks). In this study we provide the first genetic data on the critically endangered species the Reunion cuckoo-shrike Coracina newtoni. The Reunion cuckoo-shrike is a rare endemic forest bird surviving in a restricted 12-km(2) area of forested uplands and mountains. The total known population consists of less than one hundred individuals out of which 45 were genotyped using seventeen polymorphic microsatellite loci. We found a limited level of genetic variability and weak population structure, probably due to the limited geographic distribution. Using Bayesian methods, we identified a strong decline in population size during the Holocene, most likely caused by an ancient climatic or volcanic event around 5000 years ago. This result was surprising as it appeared in apparent contradiction with the accepted theory of recent population collapse due to deforestation and predator introduction. These results suggest that new methods allowing for more complex demographic models are necessary to reconstruct the demographic history of populations.
Peer review: yes
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043524
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